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   2011| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 16, 2010

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Postoperative pain after cholecystectomy: Conventional laparoscopy versus single-incision laparoscopic surgery
A Prasad, KA Mukherjee, S Kaul, M Kaur
January-March 2011, 7(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72370  PMID:21197238
Background: This study was undertaken to compare the postoperative pain after cholecystectomy done by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) versus conventional four-port laparoscopy [conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS)]. SILS is a feasible and a promising method for cholecystectomy. It is possible to do this procedure without the use of special equipments. While there are cosmetic advantages to SILS, it is not clear whether or not the pain is also reduced. Methods: Patients undergoing cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones were offered the choice of the two methods and the first 100 consecutive patients from each group were included in this observational study. Only conventional instruments were used to keep the cost of surgery comparable. Pain scores were checked 8 hours after the surgery using visual analogue score. Student's t test was done to check the statistical significance. Results: We observed no significant difference in the pain score between the CLS and SILS (2.78 versus 2.62). The operative time (OT) was significantly lower in the CLS group (28 versus 67 minutes). Comparing the OTs of the first 50 patients undergoing SILS with the second 50 patients showed a significantly lower OT (79 versus 54 minutes). We also compared the pain score between these three groups. The second half of SILS group had a significantly lower pain score compared to the first half (2.58 versus 2.84). This group also had a lower pain score compared to conventional laparoscopy group but the difference was not statistically significant (2.58 versus 2.78). Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference in the overall postoperative pain as OT decreases with surgeon's experience in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, postoperative pain at 8 hours appears to favour this method over conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  24 5,938 244
Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art
Michele Diana, Parag Dhumane, RA Cahill, N Mortensen, Joel Leroy, Jacques Marescaux
January-March 2011, 7(1):52-60
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72382  PMID:21197243
Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS) surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%). Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.
  23 5,358 226
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery - Current status and controversies
Prashanth P Rao, Pradeep P Rao, Sonali Bhagwat
January-March 2011, 7(1):6-16
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72360  PMID:21197236
Scarless surgery is the Holy Grail of surgery and the very raison d'etre of Minimal Access Surgery was the reduction of scars and thereby pain and suffering of the patients. The work of Muhe and Mouret in the late 80s, paved the way for mainstream laparoscopic procedures and it rapidly became the method of choice for many intra-abdominal procedures. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is a very exciting new modality in the field of minimal access surgery which works for further reducing the scars of standard laparoscopy and towards scarless surgery. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) was developed for scarless surgery, but did not gain popularity due to a variety of reasons. NOTES stands for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery, a term coined by a consortium in 2005. NOTES remains a research technique with only a few clinical cases having been reported. The lack of success of NOTES seems to have spurred on the interest in single-incision laparoscopy as an eminently doable technique in the present with minimum visible scarring, rendering a 'scarless' effect. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is, a term coined by a multidisciplinary consortium in 2008 for single-incision laparoscopic surgery. These are complementary technologies with similar difficulties of access, lack of triangulation and inadequate instrumentation as of date. LESS seems to offer an advantage to surgeons with its familiar field of view and instruments similar to those used in conventional laparoscopy. LESS remains a evolving special technique used successfully in many a centre, but with a significant way to go before it becomes mainstream. It currently stands between standard laparoscopy and NOTES in the armamentarium of minimal access surgery. This article outlines the development of LESS giving an overview of all the techniques and devices available and likely to be available in the future.
  21 11,472 365
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynaecology: A new frontier in minimally invasive surgery
Amanda Nickles Fader, Kimberly L Levinson, Camille C Gunderson, Abigail D Winder, Pedro F Escobar
January-March 2011, 7(1):71-77
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72387  PMID:21197247
Review Objective: To review the recent developments and published literature on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery in gynaecology. Recent Findings: Minimally invasive surgery has become a standard of care for the treatment of many benign and malignant gynaecological conditions. Recent advances in conventional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery have favorably impacted the entire spectrum of gynaecological surgery. With the goal of improving morbidity and cosmesis, continued efforts towards refinement of laparoscopic techniques have lead to minimization of size and number of ports required for these procedures. LESS surgery is a recently proposed surgical term used to describe various techniques that aim at performing laparoscopic surgery through a single, small-skin incision concealed within the umbilicus. In the last 5 years, there has been a surge in the developments in surgical technology and techniques for LESS surgery, which have resulted in a significant increase in utilisation of LESS across many surgical subspecialties. Recently published outcomes data demonstrate feasibility, safety and reproducibility for LESS in gynaecology. The contemporary LESS literature, extent of gynaecological procedures utilising these techniques and limitations of current technology will be reviewed in this manuscript. Conclusions: LESS surgery represents the newest frontier in minimally invasive surgery. Comparative data and prospective trials are necessary in order to determine the clinical impact of LESS in treatment of gynaecological conditions.
  11 7,107 203
Single-incision laparoscopic bariatric surgery
Chih-Kun Huang
January-March 2011, 7(1):99-103
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72397  PMID:21197253
Background: Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery. Methods: The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported. Results: The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05%) needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar. Conclusion: Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.
  10 5,474 194
Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy
Manish Joshi, Shrikant Kurhade, MS Peethambaram, Suhas Kalghatgi, Mohan Narsimhan, Ramesh Ardhanari
January-March 2011, 7(1):65-67
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72385  PMID:21197245
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a rapidly evolving field as a bridge between traditional laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. We present a case of SILS splenectomy performed with conventional laparoscopic instruments in a 7-month-old boy with the diagnosis of multiple splenic abscesses. A 3-cm umbilical incision was used for the placement of two (5 mm) trocars and one 10-mm videoscope (30º). Conventional laparoscopic dissector and grasper were the main tools during surgical procedure. Spleen was removed through the umbilical incision. Although procedures like aingle-incision cholecystectomy have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of SILS splenectomy using conventional laparoscopic instruments reported from India and is perhaps the first in an infant in the world literature.
  9 3,729 146
Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy
Rakesh Sinha, Meenakshi Sundaram, Chaitali Mahajan, Shweta Raje, Pratima Kadam, Gayatri Rao, Prachi Shitut
January-March 2011, 7(1):78-82
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72389  PMID:21197248
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.
  8 6,626 182
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery
Alfred Cuschieri
January-March 2011, 7(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72356  PMID:21197235
  7 3,574 253
Minimally invasive single-site surgery for the digestive system: A technological review
Parag W Dhumane, Michele Diana, Joel Leroy, Jacques Marescaux
January-March 2011, 7(1):40-51
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72381  PMID:21197242
Minimally Invasive Single Site (MISS) surgery is a better terminology to explain the novel concept of scarless surgery, which is increasingly making its way into clinical practice. But, there are some difficulties. We review the existing technologies for MISS surgery with regards to single-port devices, endoscope and camera, instruments, retractors and also the future perspectives for the evolution of MISS surgery. While we need to move ahead cautiously and wait for the development of appropriate technology, we believe that the "Ultimate form of Minimally Invasive Surgery" will be a hybrid form of MISS surgery and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, complimented by technological innovations from the fields of robotics and computer-assisted surgery.
  7 14,371 292
Single-port splenectomy: Current update and controversies
Eduardo M Targarona, Maria B Lima, Carmen Balague, Manuel Trias
January-March 2011, 7(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72383  PMID:21197244
Multiport laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is considered the "gold standard" for the management of surgical diseases in normal or slightly enlarged spleens. The concept of minimal-invasive surgical techniques has progressed since the early 1990s from standard multiport laparoscopy to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and, more recently, to single-port access (SPA). In this paper, we describe our technique for SPA splenectomy and provide a critical review of the current literature on SPA for splenic diseases.Preliminary results published to date indicate that the spleen can be safely removed using single-incision surgery and all the authors have unanimously endorsed the feasibility of this approach. However, available evidence is still scarce. It is based only on case reports and one small series, with a total of 17 patents and, therefore, firm conclusions cannot yet be drawn and more experience and comparative trials are needed to determine the exact role of this interesting new approach. a???5?5?
  7 4,239 145
Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy with innovative gastric traction suture
G Srikanth, MD Wasim, A Sajjad, Neel Shetty
January-March 2011, 7(1):68-70
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72386  PMID:21197246
Laparoscopic splenectomy is now the gold standard for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) undergoing splenectomy. There are a few reports in literature on single-incision laparoscopic (SIL) splenectomy. Herein, we describe a patient undergoing SIL splenectomy for ITP without the use of a disposable port device. We report a 20-year-old female patient with steroid-refractory ITP having a platelet count of 14,000/cmm who underwent a SIL splenectomy. Dissection was facilitated by the use of a single articulating grasper and a gastric traction suture and splenic vessels were secured at the hilum with an endo-GIA stapler. She made an uneventful postoperative recovery and was discharged on the second postoperative day. She is doing well with no visible scar at 8-month follow-up.
  7 4,531 134
Single-incision multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy: How I do it
Parveen Bhatia, Vinay Sabharwal, Sudhir Kalhan, Suviraj John, Jagpreet S Deed, Mukund Khetan
January-March 2011, 7(1):28-32
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72372  PMID:21197239
Introduction : Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) appendectomy seeks to further minimise the trauma of parietal access of laparoscopic appendectomy. Methods: We present our initial experience of 17 cases of SILS appendectomy which were completed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. We utiliesd a single-incision multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SIMPLA) technique. Results: The operative time was 63 ± 20 min, blood loss 6.5 ± 5 mL, bowel movement (passing stool) occurred in 2.6 ± 0.6 days. Most patients were discharged on the first operative day on oral diet. The analgesic usage and pain scores were similar to multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy. No complications were noted at follow-up till 4 weeks and the surgical wound healed in all patients with an inconspicuous scar. Conclusion: Our initial experience with SILS appendectomy demonstrates its feasibility and supports the promise of minimising further the access of laparoscopic surgery. The clear advantage is its cosmetic benefit.
  6 4,952 211
Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: How I do it?
Deepraj Bhandarkar, Gaurav Mittal, Rasik Shah, Avinash Katara, Tehemton E Udwadia
January-March 2011, 7(1):17-23
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72367  PMID:21197237
Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a relatively new technique that is being increasingly used by surgeons around the world. Unlike the multi-port cholecystectomy, a standardised technique and detailed description of the operative steps of SILC is lacking in the literature. This article provides a stepwise account of the technique of SILC aimed at surgeons wishing to learn the procedure. A brief review of the current literature on SILC follows.
  6 6,670 231
Urological applications of single-site laparoscopic surgery
Andrew Symes, Abhay Rane
January-March 2011, 7(1):90-95
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72394  PMID:21197251
Single-port, single-incision laparoscopy is part of the natural development of minimally invasive surgery. Refinement and modification of laparoscopic instrumentation has resulted in a substantial increase in the use of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in urology over the past 2 years. Since the initial report of single-port nephrectomy in 2007, the majority of laparoscopic procedures in urology have been described with a single-site approach. This includes surgery on the adrenal, ureter, bladder, prostate, and testis, for both benign and malignant conditions. In this review, we describe the current clinical applications and results of LESS in Urological Surgery. To date this evidence comes from small case series in centres of excellence, with good results. Further well-designed prospective trials are awaited to validate these findings.
  6 3,636 129
Single-incision laparoscopic myomectomy
Tiffany R Jackson, Jon I Einarsson
January-March 2011, 7(1):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72391  PMID:21197249
Laparoscopic myomectomy is a minimally invasive surgical option for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Single-incision laparoscopy is a relatively new concept that has potential in gynaecological surgery although the technical challenges of single-incision access have limited the widespread use of the technique. The use of intracorporeal suturing is a significant component of the learning curve for laparoscopic myomectomy and presents an even greater challenge with single-incision laparoscopic myomectomy. This article describes a surgeon's approach to single-incision laparoscopic myomectomy.
  5 5,884 174
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery: An overview
Tehemton E Udwadia
January-March 2011, 7(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72354  PMID:21197234
  4 2,791 249
One-handed knot tying technique in single-incision laparoscopic surgery
John Thanakumar, Pravin Hector John
January-March 2011, 7(1):112-115
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72401  PMID:21197256
In an open surgery, two-handed as well as one-handed knot tying is commonplace. Knot tying in laparoscopic surgery traditionally involves the use of two instruments (for fashioning an intracorporeal knot) or passing of a ligature around a tubular structure, exteriorising it, fashioning a knot, and sliding it down with a knot-pusher (external slip knot). With increasing interest in expanding applications of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), surgeons are faced with new challenges. In SILS it is not usually possible to utilise two instruments for knot tying as they lie almost parallel. We describe a novel one-handed knot tying technique devised specifically for use in SILS.
  4 3,558 216
Ex-vivo training model for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery
Sashi S Kommu
January-March 2011, 7(1):104-108
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72398  PMID:21197254
Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has recently been applied successfully in the performance of a host of surgical procedures. Preliminary consensus from the experts is that this mode of surgery is technically challenging and requires expertise. The transition from trainee to practicing surgeon, especially in complex procedures with challenging learning curves, takes time and mentor-guided nurturing. However, the trainee needs to use platforms of training to gain the skills that are deemed necessary for undertaking the live human case. Objective: This article aims to demonstrate a step-by-step means of how to acquire the necessary instrumentation and build a training model for practicing steeplechase exercises in LESS for urological surgeons and trainees. The tool built as a result of this could set the platform for performance of basic and advanced skills uptake using conventional, bent and articulated instruments. A preliminary construct validity of the platform was conducted. Materials and Methods: A box model was fitted with an R-Port and camera. Articulated and conventional instruments were used to demonstrate basic exercises (e.g. glove pattern cutting, loop stacking and suturing) and advanced exercises (e.g. pyeloplasty). The validation included medical students (M), final year laparoscopic fellows (F) and experienced consultant laparoscopic surgeons (C) with at least 50 LESS cases experience in total, were tested on eight basic skill tasks (S) including manipulation of the flexible cystoscope (S1), hand eye coordination (S2), cutting with flexible scissors (S3), grasping with flexible needle holders (S4), two-handed maneuvers (S5), object translocation (S6), cross hand suturing with flexible instruments (S7) and conduction of an ex-vivo pyeloplasty. Results: The successful application of the box model was demonstrated by trainee based exercises. The cost of the kit with circulated materials was less than £150 (Pounds Sterling). The noncamera handling skills (S2-S8) of the ex-vivo training model for LESS can distinguish between laparoscopically naοve fellows and experienced consultants in LESS. S4-S8 showed the highest level of construct validity, by accurately differentiating among the M, F and C groups. Conclusion: LESS requires a significant amount of skill and has an inherent steep learning curve. The ex-vivo model described provides a cost-effective means that a trainee or training unit can build for optimising preliminary skill acquisition in LESS for urological trainees. It has construct validity in several tasks. Such platform models should be tested further with an emphasis on rapid sequence uptake of optimal skills, prior to undertaking the live human case.
  4 3,496 161
Use of operative laparoscopes in single-port surgery: The forgotten tool
Arjun Khosla, Todd A Ponsky
January-March 2011, 7(1):116-120
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72403  PMID:21197257
Single-port surgery is an emerging advancement in the field of minimally invasive surgery. Several different techniques and tools have been developed to decrease the invasiveness of various operations. Amongst these new developments, many general surgeons have overlooked an important tool, the operative laparoscope. These telescopes reduce the number of ports placed during minimally invasive operations by providing both visualization and operative channels to accommodate instruments. We have described several simple techniques that employ the operative laparoscope to reduce the number of incisions in laparoscopic surgery with good outcomes. Single-port surgery has been shown to be safe and effective and may someday replace traditional laparoscopy in the performance of minimally invasive operations.
  3 5,433 152
Single-port laparoscopy: Considerations in children
Todd A Ponsky, David M Krpata
January-March 2011, 7(1):96-98
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72395  PMID:21197252
As the quest to minimize scars from surgery continues, innovative methods of surgery, including single-port surgery, have come to the forefront. Here, we review considerations for surgery in children with particular attention to appendectomy and cholecystectomy. We discuss the future technologies that will aid in single-port surgery and how they apply to the paediatric population.
  3 2,786 151
Single-incision bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy
Deepraj Bhandarkar, Avinash Katara, Vinay Deshmane, Gaurav Mittal, Tehemton E Udwadia
January-March 2011, 7(1):87-89
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72392  PMID:21197250
Although single-incision laparoscopic surgery made an appearance on the surgical scene only recently, it is being increasingly applied in the treatment of a variety of disorders. We report single-incision bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy and salpingooophorectomy performed in two patients who had previously undergone breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer. Each procedure was undertaken using two 5-mm and one 3-mm ports inserted through a 2-cm transverse supraumbilical incision and standard laparoscopic instruments. The operative time was 50 and 65 min respectively and the blood loss negligible. The patients were discharged 36 and 24 h after surgery, required minimal postoperative analgesia and remain well at a follow up of 19 and 17 months, respectively. With the benefit of improved cosmesis, the single-incision approach holds the potential to replace the traditional bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy.
  1 3,361 123
Single-incision trans-abdominal preperitoneal mesh hernioplasty
Prabal Roy, Anushtup De
January-March 2011, 7(1):33-36
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72376  PMID:21197240
Single-incision laparoscopy is being used to carry out a wide variety of laparoscopic operations since its introduction in 2007. Various case reports and studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) and totally extra-peritoneal mesh hernioplasty. However, till date, its apparent advantages have been mainly cosmetic and related to patient satisfaction. We have been performing single-incision laparoscopic TAPP mesh hernioplasty since June 2009 using conventional laparoscopic instruments. Here, we describe our technique that is aimed at standardising the method.
  1 5,964 177
Single-incision laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh hernioplasty for anterior abdominal wall hernia: A safe and feasible approach
Prabal Roy, Anushtup De
January-March 2011, 7(1):37-39
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72377  PMID:21197241
Background: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is being increasingly performed in experienced laparoscopic centres. The primary aim is at improving the cosmetic outcome of surgery without compromising the safety of the operation. The challenge of this surgery lies in limited range of movement of the instruments due to proximity of working ports and limited triangulation. Methods: We describe our first four consecutive cases of single-incision laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh hernioplasty for anterior abdominal wall hernia repair during a period of June to July 2009. Operative time, hospital stay and postoperative pain were assessed, and follow up was done for 3 months. Results: Three patients were discharged on first postoperative day and one on second postoperative day without any complications. Conclusions: Based on our experience, we believe that the procedure is feasible without additional risk. Cosmetic benefit is clear; however, beyond that the actual outcome with respect to patient recovery, postoperative pain and long-term complications needs to be evaluated and compared to standard laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh hernioplasty.
  1 3,395 163
Our ideas for introduction of single-port surgery
Yutaka Kojima, Yuichi Tomiki, Kazuhiro Sakamoto
January-March 2011, 7(1):109-111
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72400  PMID:21197255
Single-port surgery, which is also called single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), laparoscopic single-site surgery, or single-port access surgery, has been performed in several countries. However, it has not been widely adopted throughout the world because there still remain some challenging problems to be solved, in terms of safety and technology, and the majority of devices specific to SILS are under development and have not been approved by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. Herein, we introduce single-incision access using existing surgical devices that will give us the opportunity to adopt SILS to our hospital.
  1 2,874 209
2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04