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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year :   |  Volume :   |  Issue :   |  Page :
 

Thyroidectomy using a single-port cervico-mental angle approach


 Department of General Surgery, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Shengli Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China

Date of Submission30-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance05-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication02-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Wen-Jun Xie,
Department of General Surgery, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, 350001
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmas.jmas_276_21

  Abstract 


Background: Over the last two decades, several endoscopic thyroidectomy methods have been developed. However, there are some limitations in these procedures. To date, the optimal surgical approach for thyroid cancer has not yet been developed. This study reported the surgical operation steps, clinical outcomes, and experience of 30 patients who underwent trans-cervico-mental angle single-port endoscopic thyroidectomy (TCMASPET) at our centre.
Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the present study. Patients underwent unilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy through a cervico-mental angle incision of 2.48 ± 0.31 cm, after which the lymphoid adipose tissues in the central region were dissected.
Results: All surgeries were successfully completed. Two patients underwent bilateral thyroid carcinoma resection with bilateral central region lymph node dissection, 23 patients received unilateral thyroid cancer resection with unilateral central region lymph node dissection, four patients underwent unilateral thyroid resection, and one patient received bilateral thyroid resection with unilateral central region lymph node dissection. No permanent post-operative complications were observed.
Conclusions: TCMASPET was a safe and feasible approach that was relatively easy to perform. This approach may expand the indications for endoscopic thyroidectomy while maintaining excellent cosmetic outcomes.


Keywords: Cervico-mental angle, cosmetic results, endoscopic thyroidectomy, minimal invasiveness, single-port



How to cite this URL:
Li HS, Lin Q, Xie WJ. Thyroidectomy using a single-port cervico-mental angle approach. J Min Access Surg [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2022 Jul 3]. Available from: https://www.journalofmas.com/preprintarticle.asp?id=346494





  Introduction Top


Endoscopic thyroid surgery is an important surgical procedure for thyroid diseases. Exploring new surgical approaches remains an important direction of development for endoscopic thyroid surgery to meet the cosmetic needs of patients while treating thyroid disease.

Trans-cervico-mental angle single-port endoscopic thyroidectomy (TCMASPET), a new surgical approach, results an inconspicuous scar at the cervico-mental angle that is covered by the chin. However, no literature has reported the safety and cosmetic results of this procedure.

In this study, we reported the surgical operation steps, clinical outcomes and experience of 30 patients who underwent this procedure at our centre.


  Patients and Methods Top


Patients

A total of 30 patients with an average age of 36.47 ± 9.37 (22–66) years old who were admitted to our hospital between July 2020 and January 2021 were included in this study. All patients underwent pre-operative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) [Table 1]. We strictly followed the national guidelines for thyroid surgery in referring patients for surgery. Patients with thyroid cancer based on pre-operative FNA results, benign thyroid disease but with large masses or patients with a strong desire for surgery were operated upon. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for TCMASPET were similar to those for the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibule approach (TOETVA). We followed precise inclusion criteria comprising:[1],[2],[3] (1) thyroid gland diameter not larger than 10 cm, (2) thyroid volume ≤45 mL, (3) main nodule size ≤50 mm, (4) benign tumour, such as a thyroid cyst, single-nodular goitre or multinodular goitre, (5) follicular neoplasm and (6) papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid without evidence of metastasis.
Table 1: Basic clinical features of patients and characteristics of thyroid nodules

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The exclusion criteria were as follows:[4] (1) unfit for surgery, (2) could not tolerate general anaesthesia, (3) previous neck surgery, ablation therapy or neck radiation, (4) substernal goitre, (5) thyroid volume >45 mL, (6) dominant nodule size >50 mm, (7) lateral cervical lymph node or distance metastasis, (8) suspicious invasion to the adjacent organs, (9) medullary carcinoma, undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma and (10) recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy, biochemical or ultrasound signs of hyperthyroidism. All patients provided informed consent, and this study was approved by the Ethics Committee of our hospital.

Surgical operation

Patients' position and incision selection

The incision was performed from the patient's cervico-mental angle [Figure 1]a. After an endotracheal intubation was performed and fixed, gauze was used to separate the tube from the forehead to prevent the forehead from being crushed. The surgeon was positioned on one side of the patient's head, while the assistant and nurse were positioned on either side of the head [Figure 1]b. Special surgical instruments included a single-port operator (Surgaid, Xiamen, China), a 90° angle optical fibre (Stroz, Shanghai, China), extended surgical forceps and a neural monitor (Kangji, Hangzhou, China).
Figure 1: Patient position, operating room setting and single-port placement. (a) Patient location and incision identification. (b) The surgeon, assistant and nurse positions. (c) The position of the single port platform and instrument arrangement

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Surgical skills

After the single-port manipulator was placed in the incision [Figure 1]c. An injection of 3% epinephrine solution (1 mg/dose; Grandpharma, China; article number: H42021700) was then administered along the medial margin of the bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles to reach the sternoclavicular region. The working space was formed by blunt dissection with a dissection rod deep into the platysma muscles until reaching the suprasternal notch. The carbon dioxide pressure was maintained at 4–6 mmHg. The anterior cervical flap ranged from the level of the hyoid bone to the level of the superior sternal notch and reached the level of the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on each side [Figure 2]a. The prelaryngeal lymph nodes were removed with an ultrasonic knife. After exposure of the thyroid, the isthmus could be cut first in the absence of nodules in the thyroid isthmus. Nerve monitoring forceps were used to identify the location devoid of superior laryngeal innervation, by detecting muscle tremor.[5] The superior parathyroid gland could be clearly identified and retained in situ after the superior pole was cut off. The thyroid was then gently lifted to separate the thyroid dorsal fibre cord and Berry's ligament. At this time, nerve monitoring forceps were used to monitor the electric signals of the vagus nerve beside the aorta, the RLN in Berry's ligament was detected and separated with nerve monitoring forceps, and the ligament was cut by an ultrasonic knife.[6] Then, the blood vessels in the lower pole of the thyroid were cut, followed by complete exposure of thyroid tissues and lymphatic adipose tissues in the central region [Figure 2]b. Subsequently, the inferior pole parathyroid glands could be preserved in situ, and the lymphatic adipose tissue in the central region could be removed. Lymphatic adipose tissues behind the RLN were then dissected.[7] The contralateral thyroid and lymphoid adipose tissues in the central region could also be removed similarly.
Figure 2: Trans-cervico-mental angle single-port endoscopic thyroidectomy in thyroid cancer. (a) The scope of skin flap dissection of trans-cervico-mental angle single-port endoscopic thyroidectomy. (b) Intraoperative endoscopic view following dissection of the thyroid nodule

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The resected specimen was put into the special specimen bag and extracted en bloc after disassembling the single-port operator upper element. The amount of blood lost in the gauze was calculated by weighing the gauze before saline flushing of the surgical field. The stripped muscle surface fascia layer was sutured with absorbable sutures. The flap border was then illuminated by a bright spot of the probe light source, and the flap peel area was drawn on the neck skin with sterile methylene blue. Finally, a 5-mm puncture drainage tube was left in the area between the platysma myoides and the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia through the skin incision. The platysma myoides, subcutaneous tissues and skin incisions were sutured [Figure 3]a.
Figure 3: Good post-operative incision cosmetic results. (a) The size of the post-operative incision was approximately 2–3 cm. (b and c) One month after surgery, the scar on the neck was obscured by the chin

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Observational indicators

Observational indicators included patients' sex, age, body mass index (BMI), size and location of thyroid mass, incision length, operation time, flap separation area, superior laryngeal nerve discovery rate, RLN discovery rate, parathyroid in situ retention rate, blood loss, drainage tube withdrawal time, length of hospital stay, post-operative complications (e.g. incision infection, RLN paralysis, hypocalcaemia) and post-operative pathology.

Statistical analysis

SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). For the characteristics and prognosis of patients, continuous variables were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies or percentages. A t-test was used for continuous variables. Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.


  Results Top


Participants

A total of 30 patients underwent TCMASPET. This procedure accounted for 1/20th of open thyroid surgeries and 1/4th of trans-chest-breast approach endoscopic thyroidectomies performed during the same period in our hospital. The male: Female ratio was 9:21, BMI was 22.53 ± 2.74, the maximum mass was 5.0 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.5 cm, and the relative position of the mass of the upper pole: Middle pole: Lower pole was 1:20:12. Pre-operative biopsy cytology pathology indicated 22 cases of unilateral thyroid papillary carcinoma, 2 cases of bilateral thyroid papillary carcinoma, 1 case of thyroid papillary carcinoma in the left thyroid and thyroid nodular goitre in the right thyroid, 3 cases of thyroid nodular goitre and 2 cases of thyroid adenoma. [Table 1] summarises the basic characteristics and nodular characteristics of all patients. Supplementary [Table 1] lists the detailed information of the patients.

Surgical outcomes

All patients successfully completed TCMASPET (100%). All the specimens were extracted en bloc from the incision, without cutting the specimens into multiple pieces. The surgical incision was 2.48 ± 0.31 cm (2–3.2 cm), the average operation time was 90.00 ± 20.41 min (61–130 min), the average flap separation area was 58.53 ± 11.46 cm2 (40–90 cm2), the blood loss of patients was 10.90 ± 3.68 mL (7–22 mL), the intra-operative superior laryngeal nerve recognition rate was 81.82%, the RLN recognition rate was 100%, the rate of preservation of the superior pole parathyroid gland was 84.85%, and the rate of preservation of the inferior parathyroid excision was 78.79% [Supplementary Table 2]. The post-operative drainage tube withdrawal time was 1.8 ± 0.71 days (1–3 days), and the average length of hospital stay was 2.97 ± 0.89 days (2–5 days). The final pathology confirmed that there were 27 specimens (81.82%) of thyroid papillary carcinoma, 3 specimens (9.09%) of nodular thyroid goitre, 2 specimens (6.06%) of thyroid adenoma, and 1 specimen (3.03%) of thyroid follicular tumour. The number of lymph node dissections in the central region was 7.12 ± 3.88 (4–25). There were 16 cases (53.33%) of lymph node metastasis in the central region [Supplementary Table 2]. The chin covered the incision well when the patient was usually in front. Cosmetic results were outstanding [Figure 3]b and [Figure 3]c.



Post-operative complications

No permanent post-operative complications were observed. One patient (case 9) who received bilateral thyroidectomy developed temporary hypocalcaemia after surgery (3.33%). In this patient, blood calcium returned to normal on the 10th day after surgery. One patient (case 1) who received hemithyroidectomy developed temporary hoarseness after surgery (3.33%). In this patient, hoarseness disappeared on the 20th day after surgery [Supplementary Table 2]. Electronic laryngoscopy showed no abnormality in this patient at the first reexamination. The occurrence rate of incision infection was 0% [Supplementary Table 2].


  Discussion Top


With the increasing demand for better cosmetic results subsequent to thyroidectomy, endoscopic thyroidectomy has been widely used in the treatment of thyroid diseases requiring surgery and has achieved outstanding therapeutic and cosmetic results. However, each approach has its own drawbacks. With the premise of ensuring the safety and effectiveness of thyroidectomy, we hoped to overcome the shortcomings of the existing endoscopic thyroidectomy and achieve good cosmetic results through TCMASPET.

There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes dissected in TCMASPET compared with conventional open thyroidectomy (COT) (6.80 ± 2.10)[8] (P > 0.05), the incidence of temporary hypocalcaemia was lower than that of COT (16.7%)[9] (P < 0.05), permanent hypocalcaemia was not significantly different from that of COT (1.6%)[9] (P > 0.05), and the incidence of temporary and permanent RLN palsy was not significantly different from that of COT (3.3%) and (0%)[10] (P > 0.05). The length of the TCMASPET incision was significantly smaller than that of COT (4.60 ± 2.10) cm[11] (P < 0.001), and the incision was well concealed. These results show that this procedure is as safe and effective as COT, and it also provides better cosmetic results than COT.

TOETVA has the best cosmetic results among the various approaches to thyroidectomy, but it has corresponding disadvantages. TCMASPET can overcome some of the surgical shortcomings of this procedure. (1) The chin nerve is not damaged during the procedure and therefore does not cause numbness in the lower lip. (2) Oral deformity is not a contraindication to this procedure. (3) The procedure is performed using transoral intubation, which is less difficult than the transnasal intubation used with TOETVA. (4) The operation is not disturbed by the mandible. (5) Strict oral disinfection is not required during the perioperative period. (6) The giant thyroid specimen can be extracted en bloc. In the current cohort, the largest mass we extracted intact en bloc 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm × 3.5 cm, and the largest diameter of mass extracted en bloc by TOETVA was reported to be <4 cm.[12]

Compared to other remote-access thyroid operations, TCMASPET has the following advantages. The number of lymph nodes dissected in the central region of TCMASPET was higher than that of the trans-chest-breast approach endoscopic thyroidectomy (6.70 ± 2.00)[13] (P < 0.05), and the location of the incision of TCMASPET was more concealed than that of the trans-chest-breast approach endoscopic thyroidectomy. The flap separation area for TCMASPET was less than that for the trans-axillary-breast approach (78.60 ± 8.60) (P < 0.05), which may reduce the production of abnormal sensations.[14] TCMASPET can permit bilateral thyroidectomy, unlike the trans-axillary approach and trans-retroauricular approach endoscopic thyroidectomies and this could reduce the incidence of secondary surgeries.[15]

Hybrid transoral and submental thyroidectomy (TOaST)[16] and submental endoscopic thyroid have been previously reported.[17] The former, with two incisions in the oral cavity, still required strict oral disinfection and prophylactic antibiotics. Both surgical procedures had more incisions than TCMASPET, therefore, establishing access was more time-consuming. In addition, both procedures were unable to extract oversized thyroid specimens unless they were divided into multiple pieces, which not only increased the operative time but also destroyed the integrity of the tumour specimens. Therefore, TCMASPET may be a more suitable approach for trans-submental thyroidectomy.

As a surgical procedure with a similar approach to TOETVA, TCMASPET has some disadvantages: (1) The surgical space is small. (2) The operation habits needed to be changed. The procedure was performed through the top-down perspective and operation order. (3) The chopsticks effect was obvious. (4) There was a blind area of lymph node dissection in area II.

This was the first systematic trial of TCMASPET. The surgical operation duration was longer than that of open surgery (90.00 ± 20.41 min)[3] (P < 0.05) in the first ten cases. We observed that the time was decreased from case 5 (130 min) to case 28 (61 min), with a clear downward trend, which indicated the presence of a learning curve for that procedure. However, a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings. Currently, the surgical operation time was comparable with that of TOETVA with a similar approach (97.00 ± 40.50 min)[12] (P > 0.05).

We found that the top-down procedure and the chopstick effect were the main reasons for the prolonged surgical time. To overcome these problems, we used the same approach to thyroid removal in COT as in TCMASPET to become familiar with this surgical procedure as well as the top-down anatomy. In addition, we designed longer surgical forceps to reduce the chopstick effect by using different lengths of surgical forceps. We also reduced interference between the optical cable and the surgical forceps by using a 90° angle optical cable. These improvements resulted in a significant reduction in the TCMASPET procedure time. This experience may be useful for other surgeons wishing to perform this procedure.

This study had a few limitations. First, no blind method was applied to select cases and related operations; thus, some bias might occur. Second, the small sample size of the current procedure and the fact that a single surgeon in a single centre performed all surgeries might affect the generalisability of the results. Third, a long operating time was still another area for improvement.


  Conclusions Top


This is the first report on TCMASPET. We believe that TCMASPET can expand the indications for endoscopic thyroid surgery by reducing pre-operative case selection requirements, avoiding transnasal anaesthesia, reducing perioperative oral sterilisation requirements, allowing for greater specimen extraction and avoiding chin nerve injury.

Financial support and sponsorship

This study was supported by Fujian provincial health technology project (No. 2020QNA007).

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Anuwong A. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach: A series of the first 60 human cases. World J Surg 2016;40:491-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dionigi G, Chai YJ, Tufano RP, Anuwong A, Kim HY. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via a vestibular approach: Why and how? Endocrine 2018;59:275-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Anuwong A, Ketwong K, Jitpratoom P, Sasanakietkul T, Duh QY. Safety and outcomes of the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach. JAMA Surg 2018;153:21-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dionigi G, Bacuzzi A, Lavazza M, Inversini D, Pappalardo V, Boni L, et al. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via vestibular approach: Operative steps and video. Gland Surg 2016;5:625-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ji YB, Jeong JH, Wu CW, Chiang FY, Tae K. Neural monitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during transoral thyroidectomy. Laryngoscope 2021;131:E671-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Thong G, Brophy C, Sheahan P. Use of intraoperative neural monitoring for prognostication of recovery of vocal mobility and reduction of permanent vocal paralysis after thyroidectomy. Head Neck 2021;43:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Yu QA, Ma DK, Liu KP, Wang P, Xie CM, Wu YH, et al. Clinicopathologic risk factors for right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest 2018;41:1333-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
He QQ, Zhu J, Zhuang DY, Fan ZY, Zheng LM, Zhou P, et al. Comparative study between robotic total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection via bilateral axillo-breast approach and conventional open procedure for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Chin Med J (Engl) 2016;129:2160-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lira RB, Ramos AT, Nogueira RM, de Carvalho GB, Russell JO, Tufano RP, et al. Transoral Thyroidectomy (TOETVA): Complications, surgical time and learning curve. Oral Oncol 2020;110:104871.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Wang YC, Zhu JQ, Liu K, Xiong JJ, Xing TF, Han QQ, et al. Surgical outcomes comparison between endoscopic and conventional open thyroidectomy for benign thyroid nodules. J Craniofac Surg 2015;26:e714-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Zhang D, Caruso E, Sun H, Anuwong A, Tufano R, Materazzi G, et al. Classifying pain in transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy. J Endocrinol Invest 2019;42:1345-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Anuwong A, Sasanakietkul T, Jitpratoom P, Ketwong K, Kim HY, Dionigi G, et al. Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach (TOETVA): Indications, techniques and results. Surg Endosc 2018;32:456-65.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Qu R, Li J, Yang J, Sun P, Gong J, Wang C. Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer: Can endoscopic thyroidectomy via a chest-breast approach achieve similar therapeutic effects as open surgery? Surg Endosc 2018;32:4749-56.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Jin X, Lu B, Cai X, Huang Y, Huang L, Lu W, et al. Total endoscopic thyroidectomy via bilateral breast and ipsilateral axillary approach: A clinical feasibility study. J Craniofac Surg 2014;25:738-41.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Tae K, Ji YB, Song CM, Ryu J. Robotic and endoscopic thyroid surgery: Evolution and advances. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2019;12:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Chen Y, Chomsky-Higgins K, Nwaogu I, Seib CD, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, et al. Hidden in plain sight: Transoral and submental thyroidectomy as a compelling alternative to “Scarless” thyroidectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2018;28:1374-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Ding Z, Deng X, Fan Y, Wu B. Single-port endoscopic thyroidectomy via a submental approach: Report of an initial experience. Head Neck 2014;36:E60-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


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2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
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