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A novel laparoscopic near-infrared fluorescence spectrum system with indocyanine green fluorescence overcomes limitations of near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery

1 Department of Gastroenterological Surgery II, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine; Division of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
2 Department of Bio-material, Graduate School of Photonics Science, Chitose Institute of Science and Technology, Chitose, Hokkaido, Japan
3 Department of Gastroenterological Surgery II, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Yuma Ebihara,
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery II, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_165_20

Background: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) introduces a revolutionary new approach to address this basic challenge in minimally invasive surgery. However, current FIGS systems have some limitations – the infrared rays cannot detect and visualise thick tissues with low concentrations of the fluorescent agent. We established a novel laparoscopic fluorescence spectrum (LFS) system using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence to overcome these limitations. Materials and Methods: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conjugated to ICG, and the mixtures were serially diluted at 5 × 10−8–5 × 10−1 mg/mL. We used the LFS system and a NIR camera system (NLS; SHINKO OPTICAL CO., LTD Tokyo, Japan) to determine the optical dilution for the fluorescence detection. BSA was conjugated to ICG (5.0 × 10−2 mg/mL) and used to coat the clips. We attempted to identify the fluorescence-coated clip from the serosal side of the cadaveric porcine stomach tissues using the LFS system and the NIR camera system. We measured the depth of the cadaveric porcine stomach wall at the thickest part that could be confirmed. Results: We could not visualise fluorescence concentrations <2.5 × 10−3 mg/mL using the NIR camera system. The spectrum was detected at a concentration <2.5 × 10−3 mg/mL. We were able to identify the spectrum of ICG (829 nm) to a 13-mm depth of cadaveric porcine stomach wall by using the LFS system but could not identify the same with the NIR camera system regardless of wall thickness. Conclusions: The novel LFS system with NIR fluorescence imaging in this ex vivo and cadaveric porcine model was confirmed useful at deeper depths and lower concentrations. Based on these findings, we anticipate that the LFS system can be integrated and routinely used in minimally invasive surgery.

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2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04