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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2022
Volume 18 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 489-642

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage to abdominal abscess: A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 489
Sifan Liu, Zibin Tian, Yueping Jiang, Tao Mao, Xueli Ding, Xue Jing
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_349_21  PMID:35915535
Background: Ultrasound (US)- or computed tomography-guided drainage for abdominal abscess is currently the first-line options for drainage, but both options have disadvantages. Patients without adequate windows for drainage mostly undergo surgical drainage. However, surgical drainage is invasive and expensive. Endoscopic US (EUS)-guided drainage is a minimally invasive alternative for abdominal abscess, but there is less consensus on its efficacy, safety and complications. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate EUS-guided drainage for abdominal abscess. Materials and Methods: We retrieved relevant papers on EUS-guided drainage for abdominal abscess from the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE databases. Each paper was reviewed, and data were extracted. We used R software version 3.6.3 to perform the meta-analysis. Fixed effects models were used for merging data. Results: A total of 11 papers met the inclusion criteria, with a total sample population of 264 patients. The meta-analysis showed that the pooled clinical success rate was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85–0.95), the technical success rate was 99% (95% CI, 0.97–1.00) and the recurrence rate was 1% (95% CI, 0.00–0.03). Three studies reported the complications, including perforation, bleeding and stent migration; none of the other eight studies reported complications. There were no significant differences between subgroups. There was no publication bias in either the clinical or the technical success rates. Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that EUS-guided drainage for abdominal abscess was effective and safe, with an excellent technical success rate. In addition, EUS-guided drainage could be used for abscesses with complex anatomy. Nevertheless, complications and stent type should be considered.
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Training and credentialing in Robotic Surgery in India: Current perspectives p. 497
Amit Gupta, Jaine John Chennatt, Tanuj Singla, Deepak Rajput, Vivek Bindal
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_348_21  
Robotic surgery has changed the landscape of surgery and ushered in a new era of technology-assisted minimally invasive surgery. There is a paradigm shift from traditional open surgeries to minimal access surgery, with robotic surgery being the new standard of care in some surgical fields. This change comes with an unprecedented influx of innovations in technology related to minimal access surgery, robotics and artificial intelligence. Despite the exponential advances in technology, there is a lacuna in the training and credentialling of robotic surgeons. In India, no dedicated training curriculum exists for trainees in robotic surgery. Thus, as robotic surgery continues to develop in India, it is imperative that robust training and credentialing systems are in place to ensure that patient safety and surgical outcomes are not compromised.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Does the morphology of the umbilicus influence the incidence of surgical site infections in transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy? p. 505
Dae Jun Lee, Kwang Yong Kim, Soo Kyung Ahn, Sang Nam Yoon, Ji Woong Cho, Sam Yeol Lee, Bong Hwa Jung, Byung Chun Kim, Ji Woong Hwang
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_157_21  PMID:35046162
Background: Transumbilical laparoscopic appendectomy (TULA) may be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic appendectomy. However, a transumbilical incision may increase incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) compared to conventional laparoscopic appendectomy. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the morphology of the umbilicus and the incidence of SSIs in patients who underwent TULA. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study analysed the medical records of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis at our institution from June 2016 to October 2020. The patients were assigned to the SSI group (those with an SSI) or the non-SSI group. The morphology of the umbilicus was calculated by measuring its width and depth on preoperative computed tomography images and was compared between the SSI and non-SSI groups. Results: The SSI group included 23 patients, while the non-SSI group included 252 patients. The width of the umbilicus was significantly shorter in the SSI group than in the non-SSI group (29 ± 10 mm vs. 34 ± 9 mm, P = 0.027). The umbilicus was slightly deeper in the SSI group than in the non-SSI group; however, the difference was not significant (16 mm vs. 15 mm, P = 0.384). Conclusions: This was the first study investigating the correlation between the morphology of the umbilicus and SSI development in TULA. SSIs tended to occur more commonly in a narrow and deep umbilicus. An extension of the umbilical incision may help prevent SSI in patients with this umbilical morphology.
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A propensity score-matched analysis of laparoscopic versus open surgical radical resection for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor p. 510
ZhaoHui Xu, Hui Qu, YanYing Ren, ZeZhong Gong, George Kanani, Fan Zhang, Shuai Shao, XiaoLiang Chen, Xin Chen
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_199_21  PMID:35046173
Background: Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). However, the choice of surgical approach for gastric GIST remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the short- and long-term efficacies of laparoscopic surgery versus conventional open surgery for gastric GIST. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 148 patients with gastric GIST at our hospital between January 2013 and January 2020. The patients were categorised into the following two groups based on the surgery performed: The laparoscopic surgery group (LG) and the open surgery group (OG). Differences in the tumour size, surgical procedures and modified National Institutes of Health classification were statistically significant. To balance the intergroup confounders, we performed 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). Results: A total of 104 patients were selected after PSM (52 in each group). We focused on the short- and long- term outcomes of patients. The baseline information was balanced between the two groups after PSM. The LG benefited from the advantages of a minimally invasive surgery (faster gastrointestinal function recovery, shorter time to drainage tube removal, less blood loss and shorter hospitalisation period), however, it also had high treatment costs. Moreover, both laparoscopic and open surgeries resulted in similar intra-operative and post-operative complications rates, overall survival time and disease-free survival time. Conclusion: Laparoscopic resection is feasible and oncologically safe for GIST. However, more prospective studies are required to confirm the findings.
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Considerations in laparoscopic resection of giant pancreatic cystic neoplasms p. 519
Srikanth Gadiyaram, Murugappan Nachiappan, Ravi Kiran Thota
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_164_21  PMID:35046179
Background: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) with (LDPS) or without splenectomy for cystic tumours in the body and tail has become the standard of care. Data on patients with large tumours of the body and tail of the pancreas are sparse. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients who were managed with laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic cystic neoplasm since 2010 was done. Patients with cysts more than 8 cm were analysed. Clinical presentation, imaging, details of the surgical procedure and the outcomes were looked into. Results: Five patients of giant pancreatic cystic neoplasm (GPCN) were managed with LDPS. Four patients were female, mean age was 45 years (range 15–69 years). The mean cyst size was 11.2 cms (range 8–15 cm). The splenic vein was either stretched or thrombosed in all patients. Three patients had sinistral portal hypertension. All patients were operated with a modified five-port placement. None of the patients required conversion. Mean operative duration was 3½ h, blood loss was 80 ml approximately and none required a blood transfusion. One patient had a biochemical leak. All patients were discharged from the hospital by 3rd postoperative day. Drain removal was done before discharge except in the patient with biochemical leak (removed on day 6). On a median follow-up of 89 months (range 1–120 months), two patients developed diabetes. There has been no Overwhelming post-splenectomy infections (OPSI). Conclusion: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is feasible in patients with GPCN and offers the all the short-term benefits, namely lesser pain, no wound infections, early return of bowel activity, early return to orals and early discharge and early return to work. Splenectomy was required in all patients because of splenic vein thrombosis and portal hypertension in three and for technical reasons in the rest.
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography-related complications – Experience from tertiary care teaching centre over half a decade Highly accessed article p. 526
Amol Sonyabapu Dahale, Manish Gupta, Pritul Saxena, Ajay Kumar, Ujjwal Sonika, Manish Kumar, Siddharth Srivastava, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Amarender Singh Puri, Ashok Dalal
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_272_21  PMID:35046182
Introduction: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) is an essential therapeutic procedure with a significant risk of complications. Data regarding the complications and predictors of adverse outcomes such as mortality are scarce, especially from India and Asia. We aimed to look at the incidence and outcome of complications in ERCP patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all the patients who underwent ERCP and had a complication from January 2012 to December 2018. Data were recorded in predesigned pro forma. The data analysis was done by appropriate statistical tests. Results: A total of 17,163 ERCP were done. A total of 570 patients (3.3%) had complications; perforation (n = 275, 1.6%) was most common followed by pancreatitis (n = 177, 1.03%) and bleeding (n = 60, 0.35%). The majorities of perforations were managed conservatively (n = 205, 74.5%), and 53 (19%) required surgery. Overall, 69 (0.4%) patients died. Of these, 30 (10.9%) patients died with perforation. Age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.005–1.07) and need of surgery (OR: 5.11, 95% CI: 1.66–15.77) were the predictors of mortality in patients with perforation. The majority pancreatitis were mild (n = 125, 70.6%) and overall mortality was 5.6% (n = 10). Conclusion: ERCP complications have been remained static over the years, with perforation and pancreatitis contributing the most. Most perforations can be managed conservatively with good clinical outcomes.
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Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography: Our patient series over a period of 10 years p. 533
Arun M Bhardwaj, Kamal K Trehan, Vishwas Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_207_21  PMID:35046176
Aim: Laparoscopic CBD exploration (LCBDE) for Common bile duct (CBD) stones with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an alternative to open CBD exploration, in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). It is being performed at few centres with adequate surgical expertise. Herein, we present our experience of LCBDE with LC over a period of 10 years. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of 121 consecutive patients was performed from February 2010 to November 2019, who underwent LC and LCBDE by choledochotomy in a single surgical unit. These included all patients with failed pre-operative ERCP. Results: Out of 121 patients, LCBDE successfully cleared the CBD in 118, and three patients were converted to open surgery. All these patients underwent choledochotomy for adequate exploration of CBD. T-tube closure of CBD was performed in 103 patients and removed after a mean of 14.6 ± 2.4 days. Primary closure was performed in 15 patients. The mean hospital stay post-procedure was 3.4 ± 0.7 days. Complete ductal clearance was achieved in 115 patients, and residual stone fragments reported in three patients were removed by ERCP. None of the patients experienced biliary peritonitis, biliary fistula, pancreatitis or cholangitis. There was no 30-day mortality and no recurrent stones reported with a mean follow-up of 12.4 ± 3.9 months. Conclusion: With adequate surgical expertise, LCBDE is a feasible alternative to open surgery for CBD stones after failed ERCP with early recovery and low morbidity.
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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictive measures on acute appendicitis: Do not let your guard down p. 539
Jeronimo Jose Herrera, Ramiro Arrechea, Matías Mihura, Mariano Bregante, José Pablo Medina, Daniel Enrique Pirchi
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_267_21  PMID:35046185
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the usual dynamics of consultation and presentation for acute appendicitis (AA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic and restrictive measures on the cases of AA. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with AA between December 2019 and July 2020 was conducted. Patients were classified into two groups; one that underwent treatment in the 16 weeks before the implementation of lockdown in Argentina (Group 1) and another that underwent treatment in the 16 weeks after (Group 2). Demographic, clinical and surgical variables were evaluated. Results: Overall, 91 patients underwent surgery, 61 and 30 patients in each group, showing a 51% drop in the incidence. The second group delayed seeking medical care longer (mean 46 h vs. 27 h, P < 0.05), had a higher rate of perforated appendicitis (30% vs. 11%, P < 0.05) and a higher rate of complicated appendicitis (56.6% vs. 18%, P < 0.01). These results were associated with a longer operative time (43.7 ± 15.5 min vs. 36.1 ± 11.1 min, P < 0.05) and a longer mean length of hospital stay (1.9 days vs. 1.4 days, P < 0.01); however, no increase in the quantity and severity of post-operative complications was observed. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic and restrictive social measures led to fewer consultations for abdominal pain, resulting in a lower number of AA diagnosed. In addition, a longer delay in seeking medical care was observed, leading to more advanced disease, longer operative time and length of hospital stay.
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Feasibility, safety and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma – Experience from a tertiary care centre p. 545
Suraj Surendran, Geet Midha, Negine Paul, Myla Yacob, Vijay Abraham, Manu Mathew, Balu Krishna Sasidharan, Rajesh Isiah Gunasingam, Simon Pradeep Pavamani, Aparna Irodi, Thenmozhi Mani, Inian Samarasam
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_242_21  
Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) has improved the resectability and survival of operable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We aimed to study if nCRT for OSCC makes minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) technically more challenging and if the peri-operative and oncological outcomes are acceptable for MIO following nCRT. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with OSCC (cT1-2N1-2, cT3-4aN0-2) treated with nCRT and MIO between 2013 and 2019 was performed. The operative details including the technical difficulty in tumour dissection and lymphadenectomy, the post-operative complications and oncological outcomes were studied. Results: Seventy-five patients (male:female - 50:25; mean [range] age - 55.49 ± 8.43 [22–72] years; stage II - 34.7%; stage III - 37.3%; stage IVA - 28.0%) were enrolled. The concurrent chemotherapy course was completed by 25.3% of patients and the most common reason limiting the completion of chemotherapy was neutropaenia (66.0%). A thoraco-laparoscopic (n = 60) or hybrid (n = 15) McKeown's oesophagectomy with a two-field lymphadenectomy was performed. The increased surgical difficulty was reported in 41 (54.7%) patients, particularly for mid-thoracic tumours and tumours exhibiting incomplete response. The 30-day overall and major complication rate was 48.0% and 20.0%, respectively, and there was no mortality. The rate of R0 resection, pathological complete response and median lymph nodal yield were 93.3%, 48% and 8 (range: 1–25), respectively. The mean overall survival (OS) was 62.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.6–71.8) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 53.5 months (95% CI: 43.5–63.5). The 1-, 2- and 3-year OS and RFS were 89.5%, 78.8% and 64.4% and 71.1%, 61.3% and 56.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Minimally invasive McKeown's oesophagectomy is feasible and safe in patients with OSCC receiving nCRT. The radiation component of nCRT increases the degree of operative difficulty, especially in relation to the supracarinal dissection and lymphadenectomy. However, this drawback did not adversely affect the short-term surgical or the long-term oncological outcomes.
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Role of aluminium paint on the management of peristomal skin excoriation . A case.control study p. 557
Ranendra Hajong
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_149_21  
Introduction: Peristomal skin excoriation is the most common complication of any stoma, especially of ileostomy and entero-cutaneous fistula. Effluent is erosive to skin and at times leads to excoriation of skin and pain or discomfort to the patient. Many strategies or local medications are being used to treat excoriated skin and give comfort to the patient. Aluminium paint is a cheap and effective means of managing skin excoriation. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in NEIGRIHMS from January 2015 to October 2020 on the role of aluminium paint for the management of skin excoriations due to stoma and fistula. A total of 19 patients were managed with aluminium paint and compared with the data of 19 other patients who were managed by conventional dressings as controls. Results: Aluminium paint helped in the earlier healing of skin excoriations and give comfort to the patients as compared to normal dressings. Conclusion: Aluminium paint is safe and cost-effective skin barrier to prevent and to manage skin excoriations.
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A meta-analysis of combined generic-covered stent-graft with or without bare-metal stent for refractory variceal bleeding p. 560
Hongcheng Ren, Mingchao Ding, Xiaoyong Huang, Bin Wang, Guoqing Chi, Changgang Shao, Shiyong Song, Wenjie Song, Ruina Shi
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_262_21  PMID:35915531
Objectives: The meta-analysis was conducted to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of generic stent-graft/bare-stent combination compared with Fluency stent alone in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure for refractory variceal bleeding. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database were searched for relevant studies from January 1990 to September 2020; outcome measures studied were primary patency, hepatic encephalopathy, survival, re-bleeding and portal venous pressure. Results: Four studies (1 randomised controlled trial and 3 retrospective studies) with 449 subjects (157 patients in the combined stent group and 292 patients in the covered stent group) were included. No significant difference was observed in the incidence of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.069, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.524, 2.178]), hepatic encephalopathy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.860, 95% CI [0.341, 2.169], P = 0.750) and re-bleeding (OR = 1.049, 95% CI [0.226, 4.881], P = 0.951). Compared with Fluency stent alone, combination therapy was associated with moderate decrease in outcomes on the post-operative portal venous pressure (standard mean difference [SMD] −0.210, 95% CI [−0.418, −0.001], P = 0.049) and was not associated with significant decrease in outcomes on the pre-operative portal venous pressure (SMD − 0.129, 95% CI [−0.336, 0.078], P = 0.223). The primary patency was significantly lower in the Fluency/bare-stent combination group (HR = 0.473, 95% CI [0.288, 0.776]). Conclusions: Generic stent-graft/bare-stent combination therapy was associated with significantly lower primary patency compared to Fluency stent alone.
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The feasibility of thoracoscopic-guided intercostal nerve block during uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy of the lung p. 567
Do Kyun Kang, Min Kyun Kang, Heo Woon, Youn-Ho Hwang
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_261_21  
Background: Uniportal thoracoscopic surgery has become widely accepted for its favourable outcomes with regard to pain. However, post-operative pain is still a concern associated with thoracic surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the post-operative pain of patients undergoing uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomies using an intra-operative intercostal nerve block. Methods: All consecutive patients undergoing uniportal VATS lobectomies between October 2018 and October 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty consecutive patients in Group A underwent uniportal VATS lobectomies without intra-operative intercostal nerve blocks. The other 20 consecutive patients in Group B underwent uniportal VATS lobectomies with intra-operative intercostal nerve blocks. Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NRS) scores were recorded at 1, 12 and 24 h postoperatively. The number of anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAIDs]) consumed until the time of chest tube removal was also recorded. Results: There was no difference between the groups with regard to sex, age, chest tube duration, length of stay, operative time or laterality. There was a significant difference in post-operative NRS scores at 1 h (P < 0.001) and 12 h (P = 0.014) between the groups. The NSAID consumption was significantly lower in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.038). Conclusion: Intra-operative intercostal nerve blocks with bupivacaine provided immediate post-operative pain relief and reduced post-operative opioid consumption in patients who underwent uniportal VATS lobectomies.
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Analysis of the therapeutic effect of transanal endoscopic microsurgery on large rectal adenoma p. 571
Yongbo Zhang, Peng Yu, Peng Wang, Mingwen Jiao, Yulin Liu, Kang Xu, Xiang Liu, Hui Yang, Lijian Xia, Jingbo Chen
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_273_21  
Purpose: Rectal adenoma, a pre-cancerous lesion, is one of the indications for transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). TEM has its unique advantages in the treatment of rectal adenomas. However, there are few reports on the therapeutic effects of large rectal adenoma (LRA). The objective of this study was to investigate the value of TEM in the treatment of LRA. Materials and Methods: We collected data from patients who underwent surgery at our center from 2007 to 2017. The postoperative pathology of all patients was rectal adenoma and the diameter of the adenoma was 3 cm or greater. Moreover, all patients underwent TEM. We followed up to observe the incidence of no wound healing, rectal stenosis and recurrence rate of rectal adenoma. The risk factors of adenoma recurrence and wound healing were analysed using single- and multiple-factor analysis. Results: The clinicopathological data of 85 patients with LRA were collected through a pre-set table. During the follow-up period, eight patients were lost to follow-up, and three (3.90%) patients developed rectal stenosis. After 2 years of post-operative follow-up, 20 (25.97%) patients had recurrence and 57 (74.03%) patients had no recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that positive margin was an independent risk factor for recurrence of adenoma. Conclusions: TEM is feasible in the treatment of large rectal tumours in Centers of Expertise with the technique.
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Comparison of short-term surgical outcomes and post-operative recovery between single-incision and multi-port laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer p. 578
Lin Lin, Qingwen Xu, Feipeng Xu, Caijin Zhou, Xianjin Huang, Rihong Chen, Haiping Jiang
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_219_21  PMID:35899917
Background: To summarise data from previous reports and perform a meta-analysis to compare the short-term surgical outcomes and post-operative recovery between single-incision and multi-port laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (MLDG) for gastric cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and Embase databases and relevant data were extracted. Short-term surgical outcomes and post-operative recovery of single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (SLDG) and MLDG for gastric cancer were compared using a fixed or random-effect model. Results: In total, we identified five relevant studies involving 983 participants for this systematic review and meta-analysis, and 45.8% (450/983) of patients underwent SLDG. The results demonstrated that mean operation time (weighted mean difference [WMD]:-3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.64,8.19, P = 0.580; I2 = 75.6%), intra-operative blood loss (WMD:-19.77, 95% CI: 40.20,0.65, P = 0.058; I2 = 85.0%) and lymph node yield (WMD:-0.71, 95% CI: 1.47, 0.05, P = 0.068; I2 = 0%) of SLDG were comparable to those of MLDG for gastric cancer. In addition, SLDG had a similar incidence of post-operative complications compared with MLDG (odds ratio: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.55-1.22, P = 0.326; I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference between the two surgical procedures for the conversion to open surgery (OR: 0.32, 95%CI: 0.03-3.15, P = 0.331; I2 = 0%), the length of hospital stay (WMD:-0.05, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.55, P = 0.876; I2 = 44.1%), the time to first flatus (WMD:-0.24, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.10, P = 0.169; I2 = 85.3%) and the time to oral intake (WMD:-0.05, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.10, P = 0.500; I2 = 0%). Conclusion: Single-incision laparoscopic gastrectomy may be technically feasible and safe for gastric cancer. However, it did not show a more obvious advantage over MLDG.
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Thyroidectomy using a single-port cervico-mental angle approach p. 585
Hua-Shui Li, Qiang Lin, Wen-Jun Xie
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_276_21  
Background: Over the last two decades, several endoscopic thyroidectomy methods have been developed. However, there are some limitations in these procedures. To date, the optimal surgical approach for thyroid cancer has not yet been developed. This study reported the surgical operation steps, clinical outcomes, and experience of 30 patients who underwent trans-cervico-mental angle single-port endoscopic thyroidectomy (TCMASPET) at our centre. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the present study. Patients underwent unilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy through a cervico-mental angle incision of 2.48 ± 0.31 cm, after which the lymphoid adipose tissues in the central region were dissected. Results: All surgeries were successfully completed. Two patients underwent bilateral thyroid carcinoma resection with bilateral central region lymph node dissection, 23 patients received unilateral thyroid cancer resection with unilateral central region lymph node dissection, four patients underwent unilateral thyroid resection, and one patient received bilateral thyroid resection with unilateral central region lymph node dissection. No permanent post-operative complications were observed. Conclusions: TCMASPET was a safe and feasible approach that was relatively easy to perform. This approach may expand the indications for endoscopic thyroidectomy while maintaining excellent cosmetic outcomes.
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Standardized single-stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy regardless of testis position: Modification of technique eliminates the need for intra-operative decision-making p. 591
Amos Neheman, Andrew Shumaker, Jack Grazi, Eyal Kord, Sergey Bondarenko, Kobi Stav, Amnon Zisman, Paul Noh
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_312_21  
Background/Purpose: It is generally perceived that a primary laparoscopic orchiopexy has superior outcomes due to preservation of the testicular artery, and thus should be the choice when achievable. The two-stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (LFSO) is considered superior regarding success rate compared to the one-stage procedure when the artery must be transected. Outcomes can be jeopardized when a primary orchiopexy is ultimately realized to be the incorrect procedure due to insufficient testicular artery length. It is preferable to decide the approach before initiating dissection, however, in reality, this does not always occur. A single uniform approach to all intraabdominal testes (IAT) that takes into consideration the main challenges encountered when performing laparoscopic orchiopexy can simplify the approach and potentially achieve good outcomes. We present our experience with a standardized approach for IAT regardless of testicular position and describe the surgical modification needed to achieve good results with the one-stage LFSO. Materials and Methods: Key surgical maneuvers implicated in the modified one-stage LFSO (M-LFSO) include preservation of a wide peritoneal flap between the vessels and the vas deferens, dissecting the vessels as proximal as possible and avoiding manipulation of the epididymis and vessels between the vas and epididymis when transferring the testis to the scrotum. Results: Our cohort included 55 boys (59 testes). Median age and weight at surgery were 13.3 months (interquartile range [IQR] 9.2–32.4) and 10.4 kg (IQR 9.2–12.6). The mean operative time was 70 min (IQR 60–85). The median follow-up was 11 months (IQR 7–12). There was one case of testicular atrophy (2%) and two cases of suboptimal testicular position in the scrotum at 6 months. Conclusions: M-LFSO is a standardized approach for all cases of IAT regardless of testicular position. Preservation of a wide peritoneal flap and proximal dissection of the vessels may contribute to the adequate testicular blood supply. The proposed approach eliminates the need for intra-operative decision-making and for ancillary procedures.
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The second 'gallbladder operation' p. 596
Srikanth Gadiyaram, Murugappan Nachiappan
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_314_21  
Background: Subtotal cholecystectomy has been reported in 8% and 3.3% of patients undergoing open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, respectively. According to a recent nationwide survey, the utilisation of subtotal cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis is on the rise. In 1.8% of subtotal cholecystectomies, a reoperation is required. Reoperations for residual gallbladder (GB), gallstones, and related complications accounted for half of the reoperations described in the literature after subtotal cholecystectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile, risk of complications, and feasibility of laparoscopic approaches and surgical procedures in patients with recurrent symptoms from a residual GB that necessitated a completion cholecystectomy. Methods: Patients who underwent surgery for residual GB with stones and/or complications between January 2007 and January 2020 were included in the study group. A prospectively maintained database was used to review patient information retrospectively. The demographic profile, operation details of the index surgery, current presentation, investigations performed, surgery details, morbidity and mortality were all included in the clinical information. Results: There were 13 patients who underwent completion cholecystectomy. The median age was 55 years (22–63 years). Prior operative notes mentioned subtotal cholecystectomy in only seven patients. The average time between the index surgery and the onset of symptoms was 30 months (2–175 months). A final diagnosis of residual GB with or without calculi was made by ultrasound (USG) in 11 patients and by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in two others. Choledocholithiasis (n = 4, 30.7%), acute cholecystitis (n = 2, one with empyema and GB perforation) and Mirizzi syndrome (n = 1) were seen as complications of residual gallstones in seven patients. All 13 patients underwent successful laparoscopic procedures. A fifth port was used in all. A critical view of safety was achieved in 12 patients. Two patients required laparoscopic common bile duct (CBD) exploration for CBD stones. Intraoperative cholangiograms were done in eight patients (61.5%). There were no conversions, injuries to the bile duct or deaths. Morbidity was seen in one. The patient required therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for cholangitis and CBD clearance on the fifth post-operative day. The median hospital stay was 4 days (3–7 days). At a median follow-up of 99 months, symptom resolution was seen in all 13 patients. Conclusion: Gallstones in the residual GB are associated with more complications than conventional gallstones. The diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion. MRCP is more accurate in establishing the diagnosis and identifying the associated complications, even if the diagnosis is made on USG in most patients. A pre-operative roadmap is provided by the MRCP. For patients with residual GB, laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy is a feasible and safe option.
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UNUSUAL CASES Top

Intraperitoneal bladder rupture in a 1 year old: A very unusual accident p. 603
Amar Shah, Anirudh Shah
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_287_21  
Intraperitoneal bladder rupture is a rare event in the paediatric population. Road traffic accidents (RTA) and seat belt injuries are considered to be the main cause for the same. We report an interesting case of a 1-year-old girl who had a laparoscopic repair of intraperitoneal bladder tear following a non-RTA injury. This is the smallest child where intraperitoneal bladder rupture was repaired laparoscopically. This mechanism of injury-causing bladder rupture has also not been reported across world literature. The child was sleeping on the floor near the bed with her mother. The father who was sleeping on the bed accidentally fell onto this child. Imaging showed large amount of clear intraperitoneal fluid with no organ injury. Laparoscopy showed a 3.5 cm long tear on the posterior wall of the bladder. The tear was repaired using 3 mm instruments.
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Giant lumbar incisional hernia with loss of domain p. 606
Umang Bharat Mamaniya, Pinak Dasgupta, Palanisamy Senthilnathan, Palanivelu Chinnusamy
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_274_21  
Giant lumbar hernia, with loss of domain, is a complex scenario to treat. Abdominal compartment syndrome is a dreaded post-operative complication. This can gravely impair the patient's respiratory function and also cause insufficient perfusion of the viscera. Pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum can facilitate bowel repositioning and can reduce impairment of the post-surgery lung function, essential for a favourable post-operative outcome. Here, we describe the treatment of a case of giant lumbar incisional hernia by the creation of progressive pneumoperitoneum and hybrid repair of incisional hernia with left posterior component separation and placement of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the defect.
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Laparoscopic surgery for right colon cancer with intestinal malrotation: A case report and review of the literature p. 609
Gayatri Balachandran, Kishore G.S. Bharathy, Sadiq S Sikora
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_252_21  
Intestinal malrotation (IM) results from abnormal midgut rotation during embryogenesis and usually presents in early infancy. IM in adults is often an incidental radiological diagnosis. Right colon cancer with IM has been sparingly reported in the world literature. Only 44.7% of these documented cases underwent successful laparoscopic resection, all of which were reported from Japan. The presence of aberrant anatomy and altered vascular orientation in IM presents challenges for laparoscopic resection with adequate nodal clearance. We present the case of a 72-year-old female diagnosed with carcinoma of the ascending colon, with IM incidentally detected on pre-operative cross-sectional imaging. She underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. We also reviewed the documented cases of successful laparoscopic surgery for right colon cancers with IM. Aided by accurate delineation of vascular anatomy on pre-operative cross-sectional imaging, laparoscopic colectomy in the setting of IM is safe and feasible, and should be favourably considered.
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A rendezvous technique using laparoscopy and cystoscopy to remove transmigrated intrauterine contraceptive device from abdomen and urinary bladder p. 613
Elbert Khiangte, Iheule Newme Khiangte, Nitya non Naiding, Kunal Deka, Ronald Bathari, Jimmy Henkhomang Doungel
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_216_21  
Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) are the most commonly used reversible contraceptive methods. Uterine perforation followed by transmigration is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication associated with the use of IUCDs. Perforation of the bladder by an IUCD is extremely rare. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with a 3-year history of IUCD placement presenting with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. X-ray of the pelvis and hysteroscopy revealed an inverted T-shaped metallic shadow resembling an IUCD in the pelvis and an empty uterine cavity, respectively. Using a cystoscope, the IUCD was visualized embedded in the urinary bladder and its retrieval was attempted unsuccessfully with the cystoscope. Hence a rendezvous technique, in which laparoscopy, assisted with cystoscopy was performed. The vertical limb and half of the horizontal limb of the copper-T were retrieved from the outer wall of the urinary bladder laparoscopically, and the intravesical part of the horizontal limb along with the calculus was retrieved per urethra.
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Laparoscopic transhiatal oesophageal diverticulectomy: An experience of large epiphrenic oesophageal diverticulum and review literature p. 616
Mahaveer Singh Rodha, Satya Prakash Meena, Subhash Chandra Soni, Naveen Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_195_21  PMID:35046175
Epiphrenic diverticulum is a rare abnormality of the distal oesophagus. Both thoracic and abdominal approaches are suitable for this diverticulum. A 46-year-old male presented with complaints of regurgitation and chest pain for 2 years. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the neck, thorax, abdomen and oesophageal endoscopy revealed 12 cm × 10 cm size large intrathoracic oesophageal diverticulum. He underwent an elective laparoscopic transabdominal oesophageal diverticulectomy. Gastrograffin study on the first post-operative day did not reveal any leak. In this case report, we are sharing our experience in the management of large epiphrenic oesophageal diverticulum through a laparoscopic approach. The benefits of the laparoscopic approach include decreased morbidity because we can avoid large thoracotomy or laparotomy incision.
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HOW I DO IT Top

Robotic real-time vessel navigation using indocyanine green fluorescence for lymph node dissection along the left gastroepiploic vessels during robotic distal gastrectomy - First experience p. 619
Yuma Ebihara, Yo Kurashima, Soichi Murakami, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_223_21  
Splenic infarction (SI) following gastrectomy is common; severe complications related to SI, such as splenic haemorrhage, abscess formation or rupture, can be fatal. To overcome these problems, we performed real-time vessel navigation using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence during robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG). The aim of study is to report the efficacy of robotic real-time vessel navigation for lymph node dissection (LND) along left gastroepiploic vessels (LGEVs). We treated seven patients with gastric cancer who underwent LND along the LGEVs using robotic real-time vessel navigation during RDG at our institution from January 2021 to July 2021. There were no complications (Clavien–Dindo classification II). There were no cases of post-operative SI or spleen-related complications. Robotic real-time vessel navigation using ICG for LND along LGEVs during RDG could help to reduce post-operative spleen-related complications associated with RDG.
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Suturing the lax pseudosac to the Cooper's ligament to prevent seroma in endoscopic hernia repair: A new technique p. 622
Jobi Abraham
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_235_21  PMID:35046177
Seroma formation after laparoscopic or robotic inguinal hernia repair is a known complication, causing nuisance to the patient and embarrassment to the surgeon. A method of fixing the lax pseudosac of direct inguinal hernia to Cooper's ligament by suturing, to prevent post-operative seroma formation, is discussed in this study. Seventy-two pseudosac fixations were done in a 'figure of eight technique' using non-absorbable suture in 56 patients. These patients were followed up 2 weeks and 6 weeks post surgery. None developed a seroma. The primary obliteration of pseudosac by suturing with non-absorbable suture to Cooper's ligament is a cheap and reliable method for prevention of post-operative seroma. However, it is time-consuming and dependent on the suturing skill of the surgeon.
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Modification of book-binding technique during totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction p. 625
Yuhei Waki, Obatake Masayoshi, Koichi Sato, Shigehiko Yagi
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_236_21  PMID:35046180
The book-binding technique (BBT) has been developed to minimise extra detachment and mobilisation of the duodenum for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) with Billroth I reconstruction. Because of the cost-effectiveness and maximisation of the anastomotic lumen, we have modified the BBT in collaboration with the laparoscopic hand-sewing technique. Herein, we introduce a modified BBT (MBBT) and discuss its outcomes. The MBBT was performed using laparoscopic hand-sewing techniques with an absorbable barbed suture instead of using linear staples to close the defect of the anterior wall of the anastomosis site. The data of 163 patients with gastric cancer who underwent TLDG with Billroth I reconstruction performed with MBBT were retrospectively collected between April 2014 and December 2019. The mean anastomosis time was 25 min (interquartile range, 21 − 30). Postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo grade II or greater occurred in 20 of the 163 patients (12.3%). Anastomotic leakage occurred in three patients (1.8%), whereas anastomotic stenosis occurred in one patient (0.6%). The cumulative incidence rate of anastomotic stenosis that required endoscopic dilation at 1 year was 1.2%. The MBBT method may be safe, practical, cost-effective and results in reduced staple use and anastomotic time.
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Transabdominal preperitoneal repair for a recurrent inguinal hernia after Kugel procedure using the medial umbilical ligament: A case report p. 629
Congfei Wang, Ronggui Lin, Xianchao Lin, Fengchun Lu, Yanchang Chen, Heguang Huang
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_283_21  PMID:35915518
The Kugel procedure resulted in extensive adhesion in the preperitoneal space. Performing a transabdominal preperitoneal repair (TAPP) for recurrent hernia after Kugel procedure is extremely difficult. In this case report, we present the case of a 81-year-old male who presented with recurrent inguinal hernia after Kugel procedure 8 years ago. Transabdominal laparoscopy was performed first. Indirect hernia formed inferior to the lateral edge of the previous mesh was diagnosed under laparoscopy. The patient's medial umbilical ligament (MUL) was big enough and could be completely released by separating the Retzius space. Finally, TAPP was successfully performed by using the MUL to create and close the preperitoneal space. No perioperative complications or hernia recurrence was observed 1 year after the surgery. Using the MUL to deal with preperitoneal problems was practical and feasible.
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HOW I DO IT DIFFERENTLY Top

Indocyanine green real-time-guided laparoscopic duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection p. 632
Yuanbiao Zhang, Jungang Zhang, Kai Jiang, Weiding Wu
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_205_21  
Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) is very complicated due to its difficulty to find the lower common bile duct (CBD), and to preserve the blood supply of the duodenum and CBD. Recently, indocyanine green (ICG) has been widely applied for navigation during biliary system and liver surgery. However, the application of ICG-guided laparoscopic DPPHR has not been established. Herein, we report an intraoperative angiography technique using ICG fluorescence imaging to visualise blood flow, tissue perfusion, CBD navigation and bile leakage assessment.
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PERSONAL VIEWPOINT Top

10 reasons why surgeons should continue performing flexible endoscopy p. 635
Easwaramoorthy Sundaram, Krishna Rau Bhimanakunte
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_317_21  
Diagnostic and therapeutic potentials of flexible endoscopy have been increasing. Several surgical procedures are now performed in flexible endoscopic platform. However, it is disturbing to find that only few surgeons are keen to acquire this expertise. Endoscopic skills are not optional but essential for every general surgeon. Sooner the surgical fraternity realise this, it is better for the prospects of future surgeons. Surgical societies should implement measures to highlight the importance of endoscopy training and strive to provide adequate training opportunities.
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TROUBLESHOOTING IN MINIMAL ACCESS SURGERY Top

Thoracoscopic pericardial patch repair of iatrogenic major bronchial injury during oesophagectomy p. 638
Srikanth Gadiyaram, Murugappan Nachiappan
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_67_22  PMID:35915528
Tracheobronchial injuries are rare but dreaded and potentially lethal complications of oesophagectomy. The reported literature on tracheobronchial injuries in thoraco-laparoscopic oesophagectomy is sparse. They may be detected either intraoperatively or in the post-operative period. Those tracheobronchial injuries detected intraoperatively usually need conversion to an open procedure for appropriate management. The surgical approaches and the methods employed for closure depend on the size and location of the rent. The methods of surgical repair include primary closure, gastric patch closure, pericardial patch, pleural patch, pedicled intercostal muscle flap, dural graft and synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Herein, we report a thoracoscopic repair of a major bronchial injury encountered in a patient during thoracoscopic oesophagectomy using a pericardial patch. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a thoracoscopic repair of a bronchial injury using a pericardial patch.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Post thyroidectomy neck pain after endoscopic thyroidectomy p. 641
Shalini Mishra, Suvrat Gupta
DOI:10.4103/jmas.jmas_174_21  PMID:35915530
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2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04