Users Online : 1687 About us |  Subscribe |  e-Alerts  | Feedback | Login   |   
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery Current Issue | Archives | Ahead Of Print Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
           Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
 ¤   Next article
 ¤   Previous article
 ¤   Table of Contents

 ¤   Similar in PUBMED
 ¤  Search Pubmed for
 ¤  Search in Google Scholar for
 ¤Related articles
 ¤   Citation Manager
 ¤   Access Statistics
 ¤   Reader Comments
 ¤   Email Alert *
 ¤   Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded277    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Year : 2022  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 167-175

Performance of three-dimensional and ultra-high-definition (4K) technology in laparoscopic surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Department of Surgical Disciplines, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Anesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Hemanga K Bhattacharjee
Department of Surgical Disciplines, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110 029
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmas.jmas_122_21

Rights and Permissions

Background: The technology in the field of laparoscopy is rapidly evolving and is primarily focussed on increasing the quality of image and depth perception in the form of 4K and three-dimensional (3D) technology. There has been no conclusion yet regarding the better technology. Methods: A systematic search was performed independently by two authors across MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Embase using the PRISMA guidelines. All randomised control trials comparing 3D and 4K technologies were included. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects statistics for time taken for different tasks across the studies. Results: The search strategy revealed a total of 1835 articles, out of which nine studies were included. Three studies showed no superiority of 3D over 4K, while the remaining six did. Meta-analysis for the time taken for peg transfer favoured 3D over 4K (overall effect: Z = 2.12; P = 0.03). Forest plots for time taken for suturing (Z = 1.3; P = 0.19) and knot tying (Z = 1.7; P = 0.09) also favoured 3D over 4K; the results however were statistically insignificant. Path length was reported by two studies and was found to be lesser in the 3D group. Two studies measured the workload by NASA/Surg-TLX score, which was lower in the 3D group. Visual side effects were found to be higher in the 3D group. Conclusion: 3D technology is likely to result in a shorter operative time and better efficiency of movement as compared to the 4K technology by the virtue of its better depth perception.


Print this article     Email this article

© 2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04