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Three-dimensional laparoscopy: Principles and practice


 Women's Hospital, Centre for Minimally Invasive Gynecological Surgery, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Shweta R Raje,
Women's Hospital, #674, 16th Cross Road, Behind Khar Gymkahana, Khar West, Mumbai - 400 052, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

The largest challenge for laparoscopic surgeons is the eye-hand coordination within a three-dimensional (3D) scene observed on a 2D display. The 2D view on flat screen laparoscopy is cerebrally intensive. The loss of binocular vision on a 2D display causes visual misperceptions, mainly loss of depth perception and adds to the surgeon's fatigue. This compromises the safety of laparoscopy. The 3D high-definition view with great depth perception and tactile feedback makes laparoscopic surgery more acceptable, safe and cost-effective. It improves surgical precision and hand-eye coordination, conventional and all straight stick instruments can be used, capital expenditure is less and recurring cost and annual maintenance cost are less. In this article, we have discussed the physics of 3D laparoscopy, principles of depth perception, and the different kinds of 3D systems available for laparoscopy. We have also discussed our experience of using 3D laparoscopy in over 2000 surgeries in the last 4 years.


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    -  Sinha RY
    -  Raje SR
    -  Rao GA
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2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04